Some of the most important primary sources of Christian faith and of theology were originally written in Greek: the Septuagint, the New Testament and some early conciliar texts. At the end of this course students are expected to know by heart the content of Lessons 1-28 of the handbook (vocabulary, paradigms, grammatical rules, tools, relevance for theology and exegesis, content focus).
This course enables students to acquire the skills needed to understand Greek words and sentences used in specialized exegetical studies as well as to parse and analyze extensive and medium-level coherent texts taken from the Septuagint, the New Testament and exceptionally other Koine Greek texts making use of a specially designed sentence analysis tool. Students will also acquire the skill of translating sentences from English into Greek. Students will learn to understand Greek text adapted to their level and answer questions relating to the texts (reading comprehension). Students will learn Greek vocabulary not only in a grammatical and morphological perspective, but also in a thematic perspective. Students are expected to be able to compare different translations with each other and with the Greek text and explain what the differences are rooted in. Students will learn the basics of working with different manuscripts and textual criticism. They will be able to make use of the available (printed and electronic) tools. Students are able to apply to new texts the paradigms and grammatical rules which they learned in the course. Students are expected to look up exegetical tools in the library and on the internet. Students are expected to learn to work with electronic Bible programmes and the university’s learning platform Toledo.
Students are expected to have an appreciation for the difference between original texts and their translations. They are expected to acquire the attitude of working with original texts in original languages as much as possible. Students are expected to have an openness to not only a passive knowledge of Greek, but also some aspects of an active knowledge, as, for instance, knowing the vocabulary not only from Greek to English, but also from English to Greek; learning some phrases by heart and translating English sentences into Greek. Students are expected to be open to not only learn the Greek language as a language system, but also to learn content by means of this language. Students are expected to be willing to learn how to use the exegetical tools for which one needs to know Greek to use them. Students are able to compare translations with the original texts and to compare translations with each other and to analyze the differences.
- Knowledge: the content of the course Biblical Greek Ia
- Skills: translate simple Greek sentences into English on the basis of what students learn in the course Biblical Greek Ia; work with electronic Bible programmes and with Toledo;
- Attitude: basic interest in languages and in comparing the with each other; interest for the role of original languages in the study of theology.
Toledo / e-platform
Is also included in other courses
- Study Abroad Programme in European Culture and Society (PECS)
- Bachelor of Theology and Religious Studies (Abridged Programme) 120 ects.
- Bachelor of Theology and Religious Studies 180 ects.
- Master of Theology and Religious Studies 60 ects.
- Master of Advanced Studies in Theology and Religion 60 ects.
- Bachelor of Philosophy 180 ects.
This course is based on Lessons 1-28 of the handbook Reimund Bieringer, Ma. Marilou S. Ibita & Dominika Kurek Chomycz, Ἐν #7936;ρχ#8135;: An Introduction to Biblical Greek, Leuven: Peeters.
• Each lesson begins with a focus on a particular theme based on the Bible or life in the ancient world.
• Basic vocabulary of 1,000 of the most frequently used words in the Septuagint and in the New Testament.
• All the declensions of the nouns and adjectives
• The most frequent morphological forms of the Greek verb.
• Parsing of verb forms and noun forms.
• Sentence analysis and translation of medium-level texts from Greek to English and English to Greek.
• Comparison of different translations with the Greek original and philological explanation of the differences.
• Use of the most important scientific tools for the study of the New Testament (lexica, grammars, synopsis, concordance, critical apparatus).
• Examples of the theological and exegetical relevance of the Greek language.
This course has the following goals:
1. The students are able to read Greek fluently and name all the Greek letters and diacritical signs of any Greek text.
2. The students are able to write Greek by hand and type Greek in unicode and one Greek font of their choice.
3. The students know the content of Lessons 1-28 of the handbook.
4. Based on the content of Lessons 1-28 the students are able to analyze, parse and translate texts which they have not seen before (Greek - English and English - Greek).
5. Students are able to understand medium-level Greek texts and have insight into their content. They are able to demonstrate this on the basis of answering questions.
6. Students have a repertoire of phrases and sentences in Greek which they know by heart.
7. Students have insight into grammatical-philological cases and their exegetical and theological implications.
8. Students are able to make use of the exegetical tools, both printed and digital.
Description of learning activities
Regular class attendance; improve Greek reading skills; improve Greek writing skills; parsing and translation exercises to be completed in individual learning activities during the classes and as take home exercises (assignments); self-correction of the exercises making use of the keys provided on Toledo; learn to work with the paradigms of the lessons; learn to apply rules of grammar to new sentences; analyze and translate Greek sentences with the help of a table and parsing scheme using the handbook and dictionaries; making use of electronic Bible programmes and of Toledo; look up books (mostly tools and original texts) in the library and learn to use them.
- J.W. Wenham, The Elements of New Testament Greek, Cambridge, University Press, 1965, many later reprints.
- Exercise book (will be made available in class)
- K. Aland et al. (eds.), Novum Testamentum Graece, Stuttgart, Bibelgesellschaft, (27)1993 (N27).
- B.M. Newman, A Concise Greek-English Dictionary of the New Testament, Stuttgart, United Bible Societies, 1971.
- M. Zerwick & M. Grosvenor, A Grammatical Analysis of the Greek of the New Testament, Rome, Biblical Institute Press, 1988.
- J. Lust, E. Eynikel & K. Hauspie, A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, Stuttgart, 2003.
- B.A. Taylor, The Analytical Lexicon to the Septuagint. A Complete Parsing Guide, Grand Rapids MI, Zondervan, 1994.
- Greek Tutor, Multimedia CD-Rom. Parsons Technology.
- Gramcord, The Gramcord Institute (www.gramcord.org).
- Bible Works (www.bibleworks.com).
The exam will consist of two parts.
Part I (closed book)
• Answering questions on content focus, grammar, the use of tools and/or on the examples of theological/exegetical relevance
• vocabulary test (Greek - English and English - Greek)
• parsing of verb forms and/or noun forms
• answer questions concerning the short sentences which students need to learn by heart.
There will be both open questions and multiple choice questions.
Part II (open book) will consist of parsing, syntactically analyzing and translating a coherent Greek text.